modes and Progressiosn revisited


This is not an introductory lesson. It is more a recap and an idea of where to go from here.

You can review previous lessons by going to:
- archive
- Harmonization
- Progressions
- Modes 1
- Modes 2
- Modes 3
- Modes of Harmonic minor
- Modes of Melodic Minor
- Modes of pentatonic minor
- Modes of Gypsy minor

Let's begin with a review,
Starting with the greek/church modes...

The major scale can be written as
Major scale = W-W-1/2-W-W-W-1/2 = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7

Creating the modes we have:
Ionian = W-W-1/2-W-W-W-1/2 = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7
Dorian = W-1/2-W-W-W-1/2-W = 1,2,b3,4,5,6,b7
Phrygian = 1/2-W-W-W-1/2-W-W = 1,b2,b3,4,5,b6,b7
Lydian = W-W-W-1/2-W-W-1/2 = 1,2,3,#4,5,6,7
Mixolydian = W-W-1/2-W-W-1/2-W = 1,2,3,4,5,6,b7
Aeolian = W-1/2-W-W-1/2-W-W = 1,2,b3,4,5,b6,b7
Locrian = 1/2-W-W-1/2-W-W-W = 1,b2,b3,4,b5,b6,b7

We create the following chords (triads) off these scales/modes:
Ionian = I,ii,iii,IV,V,vi,viio,VIII(I)
Dorian = i-ii-bIII-IV-v-vio-bVII
Phrygian = i-bII-bIII-iv-vo-bVI-bvii
Lydian = I-II-iii-#ivo-V-vi-vii
Mixolydian = I-ii-iiio-IV-v-vi-bVII
Aeolian = i-iio-bIII-iv-v-bVI-bVII
Locrian = io-bII-biii-iv-bV-bVI-bvii

We create the following seventh chords..., ninth, eleventh, thirteenth

We see the following chords for Ionian:
in 7th chords: Imaj7-ii7-iii7-IVmaj7-V7-vi7-vii7b5
in 9th chords: Imaj9-ii9-iii7b9-IVmaj9-V9-vi9-vii7b9b5
in 11th chords: Imaj11-ii11-iii11b9-IVmaj9#11-V11-vi11-vii11b9b5
in 13th chords: Imaj13-ii13-iii11b13b9-IVmaj13#11-V13-vi11b13-vii11b13b9b5

We see the following chords for dorian:
in 7th chords: i7-ii7-bIIImaj7-IV7-v7--vi7b5-bVIImaj7
in 9th chords: i9-ii7b9-bIIImaj9-IV9-v7-vi7b9b5-bVIImaj9
in 11th chords: i11-ii11b9-bIIImaj9#11-IV11-v11-vi11b9b5-bVIImaj11
in 13th chords: i13-ii11b13b9-bIIImaj13#11-IV13-v11b13-vi11b13b9b5-bVIImaj13

We see the following chords for phrygian:
in triads: i-bII-bIII-iv-vo-bVI-bvii
in 7th chords: i7-bIImaj7-bIII7-iv7-v7b5-bVImaj7-bvii7
in 9th chords: i7b9-bIImaj9-bIII9-iv9-v7b9b5-bVImaj9-bvii9
in 11th chords: i11b9-bIImaj9#11-bIII11-iv11-v11b9b5-bVImaj11-bvii11
in 13th chords: i11b13b9-bIImaj13#11-bIII13-iv11b13-v11b13b9b5-bVImaj13-bvii13

We see the following chords for Lydian:
in triads: I-II-iii-#ivo-V-vi-vii
in 7th chords: Imaj7-II7-iii7-#iv7b5-Vmaj7-vi7-vii7
in 9th chords: Imaj9-II9-iii9-#iv7b9b5-Vmaj9-vi9-vii7b9
in 11th chords: Imaj9#11-II11-iii11-#iv11b9b5-Vmaj11-vi11-vii11b9
in 13th chords: Imaj13#11-II13-iii11b13-#iv11b13b9b5-Vmaj13-vi13-vii11b13b9

We see the following chords for Mixolydian:
in triads: I-ii-iiio-IV-v-vi-bVII
in 7th chords: I7-ii7-iii7b5-IVmaj7-v7-vi7-bVIImaj7
in 9th chords: I9-ii9-iii7b9b5-IVmaj9-v9-vi7b9-bVIImaj9
in 11th chords: I11-ii11-iii11b9b5-IVmaj11-v11-vi11b9-bVIImaj9#11
in 13th chords: I13-ii11b13-iii11b13b9b5-IVmaj13-v13-vi11b13b9-bVIImaj13#11

We see the following chords for Aeolian:
in 7th chords: i7-ii7b5-bIIImaj7-iv7-v7-bVImaj7-bVII7
in 9th chords: i9-ii7b9b5-bIIImaj9-iv9-v7b9-bVImaj9-bVII9
in 11th chords: i11-ii11b9b5-bIIImaj11-iv11-v11b9-bVImaj9#11-bVII11
in 13th chords: i11b13-ii11b13b9b5-bIIImaj13-iv13-v11b13b9-bVImaj13#11-bVII13

We see the following chords for Locrian:
in triads: io-bII-biii-iv-bV-bVI-bvii
in 7th chords: i7b5-bIImaj7-biii7-iv7-bVmaj7-bVI7-bvii7
in 9th chords: i7b9b5-bIImaj9-biii9-iv7b9-bVmaj9-bVI9-bvii9
in 11th chords: i11b9b5-bIImaj11-biii11-iv11b9-bVmaj9#11-bVI11-bvii11
in 13th chords: i11b13b9b5-bIImaj13-biii13-iv11b13b9-bV13#11-bVI13-bvii11b13


Likewise from the h.min, m.min, pent, g.min scales...

We now derive the modes of the harmonic minor scale (harmonic minor scale = W-1/2-W-W-1/2-m3-1/2).

harmonic minor scale = W-1/2-W-W-1/2-m3-1/2 = 1,2,b3,4,5,b6,7
Locrian nat.6 = 1/2-W-W-1/2-m3-1/2-W = 1,b2,b3,4,b5,6,b7
Ionian #5 = W-W-1/2-m3-1/2-W-1/2 = 1,2,3,4,#5,6,7
Dorian #4 (overtone minor) = W-1/2-m3-1/2-W-1/2-W = 1,2,b3,#4,5,6,b7
Spanish Major = 1/2-m3-1/2-W-1/2-W-W = 1,b2,3,4,5,b6,b7
Lydian #9 = m3-1/2-W-1/2-W-W-1/2 = 1,#2,3,#4,5,6,7
Altered Dominant bb7 = 1/2-W-1/2-W-W-1/2-m3 = 1,b2,b3,b4,b5,b6,bb7

From the harmonic minor scale, we get the following chords:
in triads: i-iio-bIII+-iv-V-bVI-viio
in 7th chords: imaj7-ii7b5-bIIImaj7#5-iv7-V7-bVImaj7-viio7
in 9th chords: imaj9-ii7b9b5-bIIImaj9#5-iv9-V7b9-bVImaj7#9-viio7b9
in 11th chords: imaj11-ii11b9b5-bIIImaj11#5-iv9#11-V11b9-bVImaj7#9#11-viio7b11b9
in 13th chords: imaj11b13-ii13b9b5-bIIImaj13#5-iv13#11-V11b13b9-bVImaj13#11#9-viio7b13b11b9

We associate the following chords with the locrian nat.6 mode:
triads: io-bII+-biii-iV-bV-vio-bvii
7th chords: i7b5-bIImaj7#5-biii7-iV7-bVmaj7-viio7-bviimaj7
9th chords: i7b9b5-bIImaj9#5-biii9-iV7b9-bVmaj7#9-vio7b9-bviimaj9
11th chords: i11b9b5-bIImaj11#5-biii9#11-iV11b9-bVmaj7#9#11-vio7b11b9-bviimaj11
13th chords: i13b9b5-bIImaj13#5-biii13#11-iV11b13b9-bVmaj13#11#9-vio7b13b11b9-bviimaj11b13

We associate the following chords with the Ionian#5 mode:
triads: I+-ii-III-IV-#vo-vi-viio
7th chords: Imaj7#5-ii7-III7-IVmaj7-#vo7-vimaj7-vii7b5
9th chords: Imaj9#5-ii9-III7b9-IVmaj7#9-#vo7b9-vimaj9-vii7b9b5
11th chords: Imaj11#5-ii9#11-III11b9-IVmaj7#9#11-#vo7b11b9-vimaj11-vii11b9b5
13th chords: Imaj13#5-ii13#11-III11b13b9-IVmaj13#11#9-#vo7b13b11b9-vimaj11b13-vii13b9b5

We associate the following chords with the dorian #4 mode:
triads: i-II-bIII-#ivo-v-vio-bVII+
7th chords: i7-II7-bIIImaj7-#ivo7-vmaj7-vi7b5-bVIImaj7#5
9th chords: i9-II7b9-bIIImaj7#9-#ivo7b9-vmaj9-vi7b9b5-bVIImaj9#5
11th chords: i9#11-II11b9-bIIImaj7#9#11-#ivo7b11b9-vmaj11-vi11b9b5-bVIImaj11#5
13th chords: i13#11-II11b13b9-bIIImaj13#11#9-#ivo7b13b11b9-vmaj11b13-vi13b9b-bVIImaj13#5

We associate the following chords with the Spanish Major mode:
triads: I-bII-iiio-iv-vo-bVI+bvii
7th chords: I7-bIImaj7-iiio7-ivmaj7-v7b5-bVImaj7#5-bvii7
9th chords: I7b9-bIImaj7#9-iiio7b9-ivmaj9-v7b9b5-bVImaj9#5-bvii9
11th chords: I11b9-bIImaj7#9#11-iiio7b11b9-ivmaj11-v11b9b5-bVImaj11#5-bvii9#11
13th chords: I11b13b9-bIImaj13#11#9-iiio7b13b11b9-ivmaj11b13-v13b9b-bVImaj13#5-bvii13#11

We associate the following chords with the Lydian #9 mode:
triads: I-#iio-iii-#ivo-V+vi-VII
7th chords: Imaj7-#iio7-iiimaj7-#iv7b5-Vmaj7#5-vi7-VII7
9th chords: Imaj7#9-#iio7b9-iiimaj9-#iv7b9b5-Vmaj9#5-vi9-VII7b9
11th chords: Imaj7#9#11-#iio7b11b9-iiimaj11-#iv11b9b5-Vmaj11#5-vi9#11-VII11b9
13th chords: Imaj13#11#9-#iio7b13b11b9-iiimaj11b13-#iv13b9b-Vmaj13#5-vi13#11-VII11b13b9

We associate the following chords with the Altered Dominant bb7 mode:
triads: io-biii-biiio-bIV+-bv-bVI-bbVII
7th chords: io7-biimaj7-biii7b5-bIVmaj7#5-bv7-bVI7-bbVIImaj7
9th chords: io7b9-biimaj9-biii7b9b5-bIVmaj9#5-bv9-bVI7b9-bVIImaj7#9
11th chords: io7b11b9-biimaj11-biii11b9b5-bIVmaj11#5-bv9#11-bVI11b9-bVIImaj7#9#11
13th chords: io7b13b11b9-biimaj11b13-biii13b9b-bIVmaj13#5-bv13#11-bVI11b13b9-bVIImaj13#11#9


We now derive the modes of the melodic minor scale (melodic minor scale = W-1/2-W-W-W-W-1/2).

melodic minor scale = W-1/2-W-W-W-W-1/2 = 1,2,b3,4,5,6,7
javanese = 1/2-W-W-W-W-1/2-W = 1,b2,b3,4,5,6,b7
lydian augment = W-W-W-W-1/2-W-1/2 = 1,2,3,#4,#5,6,7
overtone = W-W-W-1/2-W-1/2-W = 1,2,3,#4,5,6,b7
hindu = W-W-1/2-W-1/2-W-W = 1,2,3,4,5,b6,b7
locrian nat 2 = W-1/2-W-1/2-W-W-W = 1,2,b3,4,b5,b6,b7
Super Locrian = 1/2-W-1/2-W-W-W-W = 1,b2,b3,b4,b5,b6,b7

We associate the following chords with the melodic minor scale:
in triads: i-ii-bIII+-IV-V-vio-viio
in 7th chords: imaj7-ii7-bIIImaj7#5-IV7-V7-vi7b5-vii7b5
in 9th chords: imaj9-ii7b9-bIIImaj9#5-IV9-V9-vi9b5-vii7b9b5
in 11th chords: imaj11-ii11b9-bIIImaj#11#5-IV9#11-V11-vi11b5-vii7b11b9b5
in 13th chords: imaj13-ii13b9-bIIImaj13#11#5-IV13#11-V11b13-vi11b13b5-vii7b13b11b9b5

We associate the following chords with the javanese mode:
triads: i-bII+-bIII-IV-vo-vio-bvii
7th chords: i7-bIImaj7#5-bIII7-IV7-vm7b5-vii7b5-bviimaj7
9th chords: i7b9-bIImaj9#5-bIII9-IV7-vm9b5-vi7b9b5-bviimaj9
11th chords: i11b9-bIImaj9#11#5-bIII9#11-IV11-vm11b5-vi7b11b9b5-bviimaj11
13th chords: i13b9-bIImaj13#11#5-bIII13#11-IV11b13-vmaj11b13b5-vi7b13b11b9b5-bviimaj13

We associate the following chords with the Lydian Augment mode:
triads: I+-II-III-#iv-#vo-vi-vii
7th chords: Imaj7#5-II7-III7-#ivm7b5-#v7b5-vimaj7-vii7
9th chords: Imaj9#5-II9-III7-#ivm9b5-#v7b9b5-vimaj9-vii7b9
11th chords: Imaj11#5-II9#11-III11-#ivm11b5-#v7b11b9b5-vimaj11-vii11b9
13th chords: Imaj13#5-II13#11-III11b13-#ivm11b13b5-#v7b13b11b9b5-vimaj13-vii13b9

We associate the following chords with the Overtone mode:
triads: I-II-iiio-#ivo-v-vi-bVII+
7th chords: I7-II7-iiim7b5-#iv7b5-vmaj7-vi7-bVIImaj7#5
9th chords: I9-II7-iiim9b5-#iv7b9b5-vmaj9-vi7b9-bVIImaj9#5
11th chords: I9#11-II11-iiim11b5-#iv7b11b9b5-vmaj11-vi11b9-bVIImaj9#11#5
13th chords: I13#11-II11b13-iiim11b13b5-#iv7b13b11b9b5-vmaj13-vi13b9-bVIImaj13#11#5

We associate the following chords with the Spanish Major mode:
triads: I-iio-iiio-iv-v-VI+-bVII
7th chords: I7-iim7b5-iii7b5-ivmaj7-v7-VImaj7#5-bVII7
9th chords: I7-iim9b5-iii7b9b5-ivmaj9-v7b9-VImaj9#5-bVII9
11th chords: I11-iim11b5-iii7b11b9b5-ivmaj11-v11b9-VImaj9#11#5-bVII9#11
13th chords: I11b13-iim11b13b5-iii7b13b11b9b5-ivmaj13-v13b9-VImaj13#11#5-bVII13#11

We associate the following chords with the Locrian nat.2 mode:
triads: io-iio-biii-iv-bV+-bVI-bVII
7th chords: im7b5-ii7b5-biiimaj7-iv7-bVmaj7#5-bVI7-bVII7
9th chords: im9b5-ii7b9b5-biiimaj9-iv7b9-bVmaj9#5-bVI9-bVII9
11th chords: im11b5-ii7b11b9b5-biiimaj11-iv11b9-bVmaj9#11#5-bVI9#11-bVII11
13th chords: im11b13b5-ii7b13b11b9b5-biiimaj13-iv13b9-bVmaj13#11#5-bVI13#11-bVII11b13

We associate the following chords with the Super Locrian mode:
triads: io-bii-biii-bIV+-bV-bVI-bviio
7th chords: i7b5-biimaj7-biii7-bIVmaj7#5-bV7-bVI7-bviim7b5
9th chords: i7b9b5-biimaj9-biii7b9-bIVmaj9#5-bV9-bVI9-bviim9b5
11th chords: i7b11b9b5-biimaj11-biii11b9-bIVmaj9#11#5-bV9#11-bVI11-bviim11b5
13th chords: i7b13b11b9b5-biimaj13-biii13b9-bIVmaj13#11#5-bV13#11-bVI11b13-bviim11b13b5


pentatonic major = W-W-m3-W-m3 = 1,2,3,5,6
egyptian = W-m3-W-m3-W = 1,2,4,5,b7
3rd mode of pent.maj. = m3-W-m3-W-W = 1,b3,4,b6,b7
4th mode of pent.maj. = W-m3-W-W-m3 = 1,2,4,5,6
Pentatonic minor = m3-W-W-m3-W = 1,b3,4,5,b7

Some possible chord associations include:

We associate the following chords with the pentatonic major scale:
triads (and dyads): I - II5 - iii(no5) - V5 - vi
7th chords: I - II7(no3) - iii7(no5) - V5 - vi7
9th chords: Iadd9 - II7sus2 - iii7(no5) - Vsus2 - vi7
11th chords: Iadd9 - II11(no3) - iii7/11(no5) - V11(no3,no7) - vi7/11
13th chords: I6/9 - II11(no3) - iii7/11#5 - V13(no3,no7) - vi7/11
and:
I, Isus2, I6, I6/9, Iadd9.
II5, II7(no3), II7sus2, II7sus4, II11(no3).
iii(no5), iii7(no5), iii7#5, iii7/11#5, iii7sus4.
V5, Vsus2, Vsus4, V6/9(no3), V13(no3,no7).
vi, vi7, vi7/11, VIsus4, VI7sus4.

We associate the following chords with the egyptian scale:
triads (and dyads): I5 - ii(no5) - IV5 - v - bVII
7th chords: I7(no3) - ii7(no5) - IV5 - v7 - bVII
9th chords: I7sus2 - ii7(no5) - IVsus2 - v7 - bVIIadd9
11th chords: I11(no3) - ii7/11(no5) - IV11(no3,no7) - v7/11 - bVIIadd9
13th chords: I11(no3) - ii7/11#5 - IV13(no3,no7) - v7/11 - bVII6/9
and:
I5, I7(no3), I7sus2, I7sus4, I11(no3).
ii(no5), ii7(no5), ii7#5, ii7/11#5, ii7sus4.
IV5, IVsus2, IVsus4, IV6/9(no3), IV13(no3,no7).
v, v7, v7/11, Vsus4, V7sus4.
bVII, bVIIsus2, bVII6, bVII6/9, bVIIadd9.

We associate the following chords with the 3rd mode of the pent.maj. scale:
triads (and dyads): i(no5) - bIII5 - iv - bVI - bVII5
7th chords: i7(no5) - bIII5 - iv7 - bVI - bVII7(no3)
9th chords: i7(no5) - bIIIsus2 - iv7 - bVIadd9 - bVII7sus2
11th chords: i7/11(no5) - bIII11(no3,no7) - iv7/11 - bVIadd9 - bVII11(no3)
13th chords: i7/11#5 - bIII13(no3,no7) - iv7/11 - bVI6/9 - bVII11(no3)
and:
i(no5), i7(no5), i7#5, i7/11#5, i7sus4.
bIII5, bIIIsus2, bIIIsus4, bIII6/9(no3), bIII13(no3,no7).
iv, iv7, iv7/11, IVsus4, IV7sus4.
bVI, bVIsus2, bVI6, bVI6/9, bVIadd9.
bVII5, bVII7(no3), bVII7sus2, bVII7sus4, bVII11(no3).

We associate the following chords with the 4th mode of the pent.maj. scale:
triads (and dyads): I5 - ii - IV - V5 - vi(no5)
7th chords: I5 - ii7 - IV - V7(no3) - vi7(no5)
9th chords: Isus2 - ii7 - IVadd9 - V7sus2 - vi7(no5)
11th chords: I11(no3,no7) - ii7/11 - IVadd9 - V11(no3) - vi7/11(no5)
13th chords: I13(no3,no7) - ii7/11 - IV6/9 - V11(no3) - vi7/11#5
and:
I5, Isus2, Isus4, I6/9(no3), I13(no3,no7).
ii, ii7, ii7/11, IIsus4, II7sus4.
IV, IVsus2, IV6, IV6/9, IVadd9.
V5, V7(no3), V7sus2, V7sus4, V11(no3).
vi(no5), vi7(no5), vi7#5, vi7/11#5, vi7sus4.

We associate the following chords with the pentatonic minor scale:
triads (and dyads): i - bIII - IV5 - v(no5) - bVII5
7th chords: i7 - bIII - IV7(no3) - v7(no5) - bVII5
9th chords: i7 - bIIIadd9 - IV7sus2 - v7(no5) - bVIIsus2
11th chords: i7/11 - bIIIadd9 - IV11(no3) - v7/11(no5) - bVII11(no3,no7)
13th chords: i7/11 - bIII6/9 - IV11(no3) - v7/11#5 - bVII13(no3,no7)
and:
i, i7, i7/11, Isus4, I7sus4.
bIII, bIIIsus2, bIII6, bIII6/9, bIIIadd9.
IV5, IV7(no3), IV7sus2, IV7sus4, IV11(no3).
v(no5), v7(no5), v7#5, v7/11#5, v7sus4.
bVII5, bVIIsus2, bVIIsus4, bVII6/9(no3), bVII13(no3,no7).


We now derive the modes of the gypsy minor scale (gypsy minor scale = W-1/2-m3-1/2-1/2-m3-1/2).

gypsy minor scale = W-1/2-m3-1/2-1/2-m3-1/2 = 1,2,b3,#4,5,b6,7
oriental = 1/2-m3-1/2-1/2-m3-1/2-W = 1,b2,3,4,b5,6,b7
3rd mode of the gypsy minor= m3-1/2-1/2-m3-1/2-W-1/2 = 1,#2,3,4,#5,6,7
4th mode of the gypsy minor= 1/2-1/2-m3-1/2-W-1/2-m3 = 1,b2,bb3,4,b5,b6,bb7
byzantine = 1/2-m3-1/2-W-1/2-m3-1/2 = 1,b2,3,4,5,b6,7
6th mode of the gypsy minor= m3-1/2-W-1/2-m3-1/2-1/2 = 1,#2,3,#4,5,#6,7
7th mode of the gypsy minor= 1/2-W-1/2-m3-1/2-1/2-m3 = 1,b2,b3,b4,5,b6,bb7

We associate the following chords with the gypsy minor scale:
in triads: i-IIb5-bIII+-#ivosus2-V-bVI-vii
in 7th chords: imaj7-II7b5-bIIImaj7#5-#ivo7sus2-Vmaj7-bVImaj7-viibb7 (vii6)
in 9th chords: imaj9-II7b9b5-bIIImaj7#9#5-#ivo7b9sus2-Vmaj7b9-bVImaj7#9-viibb7b9
in 11th chords: imaj9#11-II11b9b5-bIIImaj11#9#5-#iv11b9b5sus2-Vmaj11b9-bVImaj7#9#11-viibb7b11b9
in 13th chords: imaj9#11b13-II13b9b5-bIIImaj13#9#5-#iv11b9b13b5sus2-Vmaj11b13b9-bVImaj13#11#9-viibb7b13b11b9

We associate the following chords with the oriental mode:
in triads: Ib5-bII+-iiiosus2-IV-bV-vi-bvii
in 7th chords: I7b5-bIImaj7#5-iiio7sus2-IVmaj7-bVmaj7-vibb7 (vi6)-bviimaj7
in 9th chords: I7b9b5-bIImaj7#9#5-iiio7b9sus2-IVmaj7b9-bVmaj7#9-vibb7b9-bviimaj9
in 11th chords: I11b9b5-bIImaj11#9#5-iii11b9b5sus2-IVmaj11b9-bVmaj7#9#11-vibb7b11b9-bviimaj9#11
in 13th chords: I13b9b5-bIImaj13#9#5-iii11b9b13b5sus2-IVmaj11b13b9-bVmaj13#11#9-vibb7b13b11b9-bviimaj9#11b13

We associate the following chords with the Ionian#5#9 mode:
in triads: I+-#iiosus2-III-IV-#v-vi-VIIb5
in 7th chords: Imaj7#5-#iio7sus2-IIImaj7-IVmaj7-#vbb7 (#v6)-vimaj7-VII7b5
in 9th chords: Imaj7#9#5-#iio7b9sus2-IIImaj7b9-IVmaj7#9-#vbb7b9-vimaj9-VII7b9b5
in 11th chords: Imaj11#9#5-#ii11b9b5sus2-IIImaj11b9-IVmaj7#9#11-#vbb7b11b9-vimaj9#11-VII11b9b5
in 13th chords: Imaj13#9#5-#ii11b9b13b5sus2-IIImaj11b13b9-IVmaj13#11#9-#vbb7b13b11b9-vimaj9#11b13-VII13b9b5

We associate the following chords with the 4th mode:
in triads: iosus2-bII-bbIII-iv-bv-bVIb5-bVII+
in 7th chords: io7sus2-bIImaj7-bbIIImaj7-ivbb7 (iv6)-bvmaj7-bVI7b5-bVIImaj7#5
in 9th chords: io7b9sus2-bIImaj7b9-bbIIImaj7#9-ivbb7b9-bvmaj9-bVI7b9b5-bVIImaj7#9#5
in 11th chords: i11b9b5sus2-bIImaj11b9-bbIIImaj7#9#11-ivbb7b11b9-bvmaj9#11-bVI11b9b5-bVIImaj11#9#5
in 13th chords: i11b9b13b5sus2-bIImaj11b13b9-bbIIImaj13#11#9-ivbb7b13b11b9-bvmaj9#11b13-bVI13b9b5-bVIImaj13#9#5

We associate the following chords with the Byzantine mode:
in triads: I-bII-iii-iv-Vb5-bVI+-viiosus2
in 7th chords: Imaj7-bIImaj7-iiibb7 (iii6)-ivmaj7-V7b5-bVImaj7#5-viio7sus2
in 9th chords: Imaj7b9-bIImaj7#9-iiibb7b9-ivmaj9-V7b9b5-bVImaj7#9#5-viio7b9sus2
in 11th chords: Imaj11b9-bIImaj7#9#11-iiibb7b11b9-ivmaj9#11-V11b9b5-bVImaj11#9#5-vii11b9b5sus2
in 13th chords: Imaj11b13b9-bIImaj13#11#9-iiibb7b13b11b9-ivmaj9#11b13-V13b9b5-bVImaj13#9#5-vii11b9b13b5sus2

We associate the following chords with the 6th mode:
in triads: I-#ii-iii-#IVb5-V+-#viosus2-VII
in 7th chords: Imaj7-#iibb7 (#ii6)-iiimaj7-#IV7b5-Vmaj7#5-#vio7sus2-VIImaj7
in 9th chords: Imaj7#9-#iibb7b9-iiimaj9-#IV7b9b5-Vmaj7#9#5-#vio7b9sus2-VIImaj7b9
in 11th chords: Imaj7#9#11-#iibb7b11b9-iiimaj9#11-#IV11b9b5-Vmaj11#9#5-#vi11b9b5sus2-VIImaj11b9
in 13th chords: Imaj13#11#9-#iibb7b13b11b9-iiimaj9#11b13-#IV13b9b5-Vmaj13#9#5-#vi11b9b13b5sus2-VIImaj11b13b9

We associate the following chords with the 7th mode:
in triads: i-bii-bIIIb5-IV+-vosus2-bVI-bbVII
in 7th chords: ibb7 (i6)-biimaj7-bIII7b5-IVmaj7#5-vo7sus2-bVImaj7-bbVIImaj7
in 9th chords: ibb7b9-biimaj9-bIII7b9b5-IVmaj7#9#5-vo7b9sus2-bVImaj7b9-bbVIImaj7#9
in 11th chords: ibb7b11b9-biimaj9#11-bIII11b9b5-IVmaj11#9#5-v11b9b5sus2-bVImaj11b9-bbVIImaj7#9#11
in 13th chords: ibb7b13b11b9-biimaj9#11b13-bIII13b9b5-IVmaj13#9#5-v11b9b13b5sus2-bVImaj11b13b9-bbVIImaj13#11#9


Recall, a progression is the pattern of movement from chord to chord (a series of chords in an order).

So we can create progressions from scales/modes or we can find scales/modes that go with a particular progression. Let's start by analyzing a progression.

Say I have a song that goes:

Em7 - A7 - Dmaj7 - Dm7 - G7 - Cmaj7 - Cm7 - F7 - Bbmaj7 -
Bbm7 - Eb7 - Abmaj7 - Abm7 - Db7 - Gbmaj7 - Gbm7 - B7 - Emaj7
(repeat).

Besides being a long looking progression, I notice there are only 3 types of chords, and they seem to follow an order.
m7 to 7 to maj7 to m7, etc.

Further,
the m7 to 7 is a p4,
the 7 to maj7 is p4,
and the maj7 to m7 has no root movement.

Look again dividing the the progression into smaller similar progressions.
(Em7 - A7 - Dmaj7) - (Dm7 - G7 - Cmaj7) - (Cm7 - F7 - Bbmaj7) -
(Bbm7 - Eb7 - Abmaj7) - (Abm7 - Db7 - Gbmaj7) - (Gbm7 - B7 - Emaj7) -
(repeat).

This sample progression is similar to many jazz progressions, and in that context we see the m7 up a p4 to the 7 as ii7-V7 (or i7-IV7), and in that light the maj7 would be Imaj7, so the segments are (ii7-V7-Imaj7), this goes along with the I-Ionian or ii-Dorian scales/modes.

How are you supposed to know that?
Simple answer - because its a jazz song.
Deeper answer - by familiarizing yourself with typical chord progressions, some rules of not-so-common sense (such as modulation), and a familiarity of genres and styles.

Just a quick note before moving on. the above, while only an exercise is somewhat reminisciant of many pieces found in jazz and bossa nova. In such a context, one would view any and all m7 followed by a 7 a p4 higher to be ii7-V7, and use that as a guide for key/scale/mode selection.

Getting started.

Let's go back to the major scale and its modes.

Consider if you will, sets of two chords (triads) based off intervals of roots. how many combinations pop up in the 7 modes of the major scale? What are they, and how do they fit into those modes?

Seperated by a half-step (sep 1/2)
==================================
i - bII 	phrygian
io - bII	locrian


(sep W)
==================================
I - ii		ionian, mixolydian
I - II		lydian
i - ii		dorian
i - iio		aeolian


(sep m3)
==================================
i - bIII	dorian, phrygian, aeolian
i - biii	locrian


(sep M3)
==================================
I - iii		ionian, lydian
I - iiio	mixolydian	


(sep P4)
==================================
I - IV		ionian, mixolydian
i - iv		aeolian, phrygian
i - IV		dorian
io - iv		locrian


(sep a4/d5)
==================================
I - #ivo	lydian
io - bV		locrian


(sep P5)
==================================
I - V		ionian, lydian
I - v		mixolydian
i - v		dorian, aeolian
i - vo		phrygian


(sep m6)
==================================
i - bVI		phrygian, aeolian
io - bvi	locrian


(sep M6)
==================================
I - vi		ionian, lydian, mixolydian
i - vio		dorian


(sep m7)
==================================
i - bVII	dorian, aeolian
i - bvii	phrygian
I - bVII	mixolydian
io - bvii	locrian


(sep M7)
==================================
I - bviio	ionian
I - bvii	lydian

* It should be noted that P5 through M7 are inversions of m2 through P4.

The Vamp

A vamp is a short musical section repeated while waiting for a particular instrument/voice to enter, or event to occur.

We can use vamps to practice soloing (many solo sections are vamps).

As an exercise, record yourself playing a 2 chord vamp for 5 minutes. Then playback the recording and use the corresponding scale/mode over the vamp.

Ex.
Try playing i - bVI as the vamp and solo over in i-phrygian and/or i-aeolian (over Am-F, play A-phrygian and/or A-aeolian).

Spotting Progressions

Being able to recognize progressions, or parts of progressions is a neccesary part of choosing options for creating "inside" melodies over a progression. For the purposes of this lesson we want to be able to recognize a mode that goes along with the specific progressions.

Let's assume you know what chords are being played (Knowing how to spot chords by sight - such as watching someone play them, by ear, or by interpreting standard notation or TAB are all skills that the beginner should be working on).

Let's also assume that you're familiar woth keys enough to be able to analyze music (another study that should be taken by us in beginner's studies). Another approach when beginning to analyze is to use a transposition chart (you can find one at simianmoon.com/snglstringtheory/guitar/8theory3.html)

It can be useful when starting to analyze, to have a large songbook to work with (one could also find TABs online).

For starters(examples in C major):
What are the following progressions
Ex.
C-F is I-IV (I-major)

What are:
C-G
F-C
C-F-G
C-Dm-Em-F
F-Fm-C
C-G-Am

I will post worksheets with more progressions/cadences to analyze {..insert link here..}.

* note: the above Fm chord is not in C-major (the iv is not found in I-major)

Knowing which chords go with which scales will help us make simple scale choices for creating melodies, solos, etc. over a bunch of chords.

COMMON MODAL PROGRESSIONS
Below is a list of some common progressions by mode:

Ionian:
I-IV, I-V, I-IV-V, I-ii-IV-V, I-V-IV, I-vi-V-IV, I-iii-IV-V, I-ii-iii-IV, ii-V-I, I-vi-ii-V, I-iii-vi-ii-V, I-V-vi

Dorian:
i-ii, i-ii-bIII, i-IV, i-ii-bIII-IV, i-IV-v, i-bVII

Phrygian:
i-bII, i-bII-bIII, i-bII-bIII-iv, i-vo

Lydian:
I-II, I-II-iii, I-II-V

Mixolydian:
I-IV-bVII, I-bVII, I-IV-v

Aeolian:
i-iv, i-v, i-iv-v, bVI-bVII-i, iio-v-i, bIII-bVII-i, i-bIII, i-bVI, i-iio-bIII-iv, i-bVII, i-bVI-v, I5-bVII5-bVI5-V5

Locrian:
no progressions come to mind. One could create them the same way as others but there are no common ones, or even uncommon ones that come to mind. You might try: io-bII, or bV/1-bVI/1

Harmonic Minor:
i-V, i-iio-bIII+-iv, i-iv-V, i-V-bVI

Spanish Major:
I-bII, I-bvii

Melodic Minor:
i-IV, i-ii-bIII+-IV, i-IV-V

Sometimes simpler progressions are found in several scales/modes, but adding certain extensions will reduce the possible scales that won't conflict.

We look at...

TALE-TELL EXTENSIONS (by several chord types)

Major seventh chord scales
Ionian - maj9, maj11, maj13, 6, 6/9, 6/maj7, maj7/11
Lydian (#11) - maj7#11, maj9#11, maj13#11
Lydian #9 (#2,#4) - maj7#11, maj7#9, maj7#11#9, maj13#11#9, 6/b9
Byzantine (b2,b6) - Maj7b9, Maj7b6, maj11b9, maj11b9b13
6th mode of Gyp.min.(#2,#4,#6) - maj7#6, maj7#9, maj7#11, Maj7#11#9, maj7#13#11#9

Dominant seventh chord scales
Mixolydian - 9, 11 13, 6/7, 7/11
Spanish (b2,b6) - 7b9, 11b9, 11b13b9, 7b6
overtone (#4,) - 7#11, 9#11, 13#11
hindu (b6) - 7b6, 9/b6, 11b13
Hungarian (#2,#4) - 7#9, 7#11, 7#11#9, 13#11#9

Minor seventh chord scales
Dorian - m9, m11, m13, m6/9, m7/11, m6/7
Phrygian (b2,b6) - m7b9, m11b9, m11b13b9
Aeolian (b6) - m7b6, m9b6, m11b13
Dorian #4 (overtone minor) (#4) - m7#11, m9#11, m13#11
javanese (b2) - m7b9, m11b9, m13b9
6th hung. (b2,#4) - m7b9#11

Diminished seventh chord scales
Altered Dominant bb7 (b2,b4,b6) - o7b9, o7b9b11, o7b9b11b13
Locrian nat.6 (b2,b7) - o7b9, o7b9#13
2nd hung. (b2,3,#4) - o7b9/10/#11

Half-diminished seventh chord scales
locrian - m7b5, m7b9b5, m11b5b9
Locrian nat.6 (b2) - m7b9b5, m11b9b5, m13b9b5
locrian nat 2 (b6) - m7b6b5, m9b6b5, m11b13b5
superlocrian (b2,b4,b6) - m7b9b5, m7b11, m7b9b5b11, m7b13b5
4th hung. (b2,3,b7) - 7#9b5, 7#9b9b5

Going back to the idea of chord type, but considering all scales/ modes covered until now (by 7th and 9th chords)

Root Chord		Contained in 
------------------------------------
Imaj7		Ionian, Lydian, 6th mode of H.min., 5th and 6th modes of Gyp.min.,
I7		Mixolydian, Spanish, 4th & 5th modes of mel.min., hungarian
i7		Dorian, Phrygian, Aeolian, 4th h.min., 2nd m.min., 6th hung.
i7b5		locrian, 2nd h.min., 6th & 7th m.min., 4th hung.
io7		7th h.min., superlocrian, 2nd hung.
Imaj7#5		3rd h.min, 3rd m.min, 3rd gyp.min
i/maj7		h.min, m.min, gyp.min
i6		Dorian, 7th gyp.min, 3rd enig.
io7sus2		4th gyp.min, 2nd enig.
I7b5		2nd gyp.min, 6th enig., 4th enig.
i7#5		5th hung.
io/maj7		3rd hung.
I7+5sus4	7th hung.
I6		3rd hung.
I7#5		Enigmatic
i7sus4		5th enig.
I7sus2		7th enig.


Imaj9		Ionian, Lydian
Imaj7#9		6th mode of H.min., 6th modes of Gyp.min.
Imaj7b9		5th modes of Gyp.min.
Imaj9#5		3rd h.min, 3rd m.min
Imaj7#9#5	3rd gyp.min
I9		Mixolydian,  4th & 5th modes of mel.min.
I7b9		Spanish
I7#9		hungarian
I9b5		4th enig.
I7b9b5		2nd gyp.min
I9#5sus4	7th hung.
I6/9		3rd hung.
I7b9#5		Enigmatic
I7b9sus2	7th enig.
i9		Dorian, Aeolian, 4th h.min.
i7b9		Phrygian, 2nd m.min., 6th hung.
i/maj9		h.min, m.min, gyp.min
i9b5		6th m.min.
i9#5		5th hung.
i9sus4		5th enig.
i7b9b5		locrian, 2nd h.min., 7th m.min., 4th hung. 
io7b9		7th h.min., 2nd hung.
io7#9sus2	2nd enig.
io7b9sus2	4th gyp.min
io/maj9		3rd hung.
i6/9		Dorian,  3rd enig.
i6b9		7th gyp.min

For the student who can use it the above contained some scales That I've yet to go over, and primarily they are the hungarian, and the enigmatic scales and their modes. I will cover them in future lessons, but for those able to use the following info, it is presented:

Hungarian = m3-1/2-W-1/2-W-1/2-W = 1,#2,3,#4,5,6,b7
and has the following chords:

Triads: I-#iio-iiio-#ivo-v+-vi-bVII+sus4
7th chords: I7-#iio7-iiio/maj7-#iv7b5-v7#5-vi7-bVIImaj7#5sus4
9th chords: I7#9-#iio7b9-iiio/maj7/9-#iv7b5b9-v9#5-vi7b9-bVIImaj9#5sus4
11th chords: I7#9#11-#iio7b9b11-iiio/maj11-#IV7b5b9#9-v11#5-vi11b9-bVIImaj9#5b5sus4
13th chords: I13#9#11-#II6b9#9#11-iiio/maj11b13-#IV13b5b9#9-v13#5-vi13b9-bVIImaj13#5b5(no3)

It's modes are:
m3-1/2-W-1/2-W-1/2-W = 1,#2,3,#4,5,6,b7 = Hungarian
1/2-W-1/2-W-1/2-W-m3 = 1,b2,b3,3,#4,5,6
W-1/2-W-1/2-W-m3-1/2 = 1,2,b3,4,b5,b6,7
1/2-W-1/2-W-m3-1/2-W = 1,b2,b3,3,b5,6,b7
W-1/2-W-m3-1/2-W-1/2 = 1,2,b3,4,#5,6,7
1/2-W-m3-1/2-W-1/2-W = 1,b2,b3,#4,5,6,b7
W-m3-1/2-W-1/2-W-1/2 = 1,2,4,b5,#5,6,7

Enigmatic = 1/2-m3-W-W-W-1/2-1/2 = 1,b2,3,#4,#5,#6,7
and has the following chords, and modes:

Triads: I+-bIIsus4(6)-III-#IVb5-#v(4)-#viosus2-VIIsus2
7th Chords: Imaj7#5-bIImaj7sus4(6)-III6-#IV7b5-#v7(4)-#vi7b5sus2-VIImaj7sus2
9th Chords: Imaj7b9#5-bIImaj7#9sus4(6)-III6/9-#IV9b5-#v9(4)-#vi7b5b9sus2-VIImaj7b9sus2
11th Chords: Imaj7#11b9#5-bIImaj13#9(no3)-III6/9#11-#IV11b5-#V9#9(4)-#vi9b5/b9-VIImaj11b9sus2
13th Chords: Imaj7#11#13b9#5-bIImaj13#9/7(no3)-III6/9#11b13-#IV11/#11-#V9#9b13(4)-#vi9b5#5/b9-VIImaj13b9sus2

Modes:
1/2-m3-W-W-W-1/2-1/2 = 1,b2,3,#4,#5,#6,7 = Enigmatic
m3-W-W-W-1/2-1/2-1/2 = 1,b3,4,5,6,b7,7
W-W-W-1/2-1/2-1/2-m3 = 1,2,3,#4,5,b6,6
W-W-1/2-1/2-1/2-m3-W = 1,2,3,4,b5,5,b7
W-1/2-1/2-1/2-m3-W-W = 1,2,b3,3,4,b6,b7
1/2-1/2-1/2-m3-W-W-W = 1,b2,2,b3,b5,b6,b7
1/2-1/2-m3-W-W-W-1/2 = 1,b2,2,4,5,6,7

Many ideas presented need to be augmented. I will create worksheets and further lessons.

Next lesson is on the wholetone scale.

Peace,
Christopher Roberts
snglstringtheory@aol.com


How do I change all those numbers to letters (for notes, chords, etc.)? Here's a transposition chart simianmoon.com/snglstringtheory/guitar/8theory3.html

Back to index
Home
Next lesson - Wholetone scale
Previous lesson - Modes of the Gypsy scale

Last updated February 13, 2003
Copyright 2003, 2008. All rights reserved.