Minor eleventh chord


Some Review

Recall from lesson on building a context that we've defined a chord as being 3 or more distinct notes, usually played at the same time. (C and D are considered distinct, but C# and Db are not, nor are octaves of the same note).

Recall that chords come in two basic parts, a letter name (C, C#, etc.) also known as a root note (tonic, 1), and a descriptive part that abbreviates the name of the chord (is a short-hand for all the intervals of each distinct note from the root note).

Recall that an interval is the distance between two notes, and that we are using numbers (with accidentals) to describe these intervals.(ex. 5 = perfect fifth, etc.) For more info on intervals see July19's lesson. to convert letters to numbers and numbers to letters, see the link below (bottom of page) on transposition.

Recall, we've previously defined the following chords:
major = 1,3,5
minor (m)= 1,b3,5
diminished (o)= 1,b3,b5
power chord (5) = 1,5,8(1)
dominant seventh chord as (7) = 1,3,5,b7
dominant ninth chord (9) = 1,3,5,b7,9
minor seventh chord (m7) = 1,b3,5,b7
minor ninth chord as (m9) = 1,b3,5,b7,9

Now we shall define the minor eleventh chord as:
m11 = 1,b3,5,b7,9,11
Sometimes we write minor eleventh chords as m11 or min11. (Ex. Cm11, Dmin11, etc.)

Here are some open m11 chords to get you started:
Am11=X00413, Bm11=X20220,
Dm11=XX0051, Em11=000002, Gm11=310213.

We should note from our definition (m11=1,b3,5,b7,9,11) that a minor eleventh chord contains a minor ninth chord (m9=1,b3,5,b7,9) within it.
We can think of a minor eleventh chord as a minor ninth chord with an added an added perfect eleventh.

If we don't know how to play a m11 chord, we could substitute a minor chord with the same root note in its place, or a minor seventh chord with the same root note, or a minor ninth chord with the same root. We will no longer have the full flavor of the m11 chord, but the substitution should work.

We also note that a chord synonym for for i11 is bIIImaj9/6.
In the key of Eb:
Cm11 = C,bE,G,Bb,D,F = Ebmaj9/C

So you could use as a substitute for a m11 chord, a major ninth chord a minor third higher than the m11 chord. (you could substitute Ebmaj9 for Cm11)

Recalling how the chromatic scale maps out on a fretboard in standard tuning ( see July19's lesson). We can map out the m11 chord on the fretboard (shown here in F) ( we note that the P4 and the P11 intervals are octaves of each other and have written in the 11, the same way any and all 8s have been written as 1s).

|-1|--|-9|b3|--|11|--|-5|--|--|b7|--|-1|
|-5|--|--|b7|--|-1|--|-9|b3|--|11|--|-5|
|b3|--|11|--|-5|--|--|b7|--|-1|--|-9|--|
|b7|--|-1|--|-9|b3|--|11|--|-5|--|--|--|
|11|--|-5|--|--|b7|--|-1|--|-9|b3|--|11|
|-1|--|-9|b3|--|11|--|-5|--|--|b7|--|-1|

We can cut this up into zones of one sort or another. In previous lessons, we've been looking at shapes based on octave patterns. (A-shape, E-shape, etc.). So below are the 5 shapes along with some voicings in TAB that go along with the shape. All of these are for Fm11. To change to to another 11 chord, we use the same process as for other moveable chords (barre chords, etc.).

Fm11 "E-shape"(root note on the 6th string)

|-1-|---|-9-|---|---| 
|-5-|---|---|b7-|---|
|b3-|---|11-|---|---|
|b7-|---|-1-|---|-9-|
|11-|---|-5-|---|---|
|-1-|---|---|---|---|
  1   2   3   4

|--3-3--|
|--4-1--|
|--1-1--|
|--3-1--|
|--1-1--|
|--1-1--|

Fm11 "D-shape" (root note on the 4th string)

|-9-|b3-|---|11-|
|---|b7-|---|-1-|
|11-|---|-5-|---|
|-1-|---|-9-|b3-|
|-5-|---|---|b7-|
|-9-|b3-|---|11-|
  3   4   5   6 

|--4-6--|
|--4-4--|
|--3-5--|
|--3-3--|
|----3--|
|-------|

Fm11 "C-shape" (root note on the 5th string)

|b3-|---|11-|---|-5-|
|---|---|-1-|---|-9-|
|---|-5-|---|---|b7-|
|---|-9-|b3-|---|11-|
|---|---|b7-|---|-1-|
|b3-|---|11-|---|-5-|
  4   5   6   7   8

|--6-8--|
|--8-8--|
|--8-8--|
|--6-8--|
|--8-8--|
|----8--|

Fm11 "A-shape" (root note on the 5th string)

|-5-|---|---|b7-|---|
|-9-|b3-|---|11-|---|
|b7-|---|-1-|---|-9-|
|11-|---|-5-|---|---|
|-1-|---|-9-|b3-|---|
|-5-|---|---|b7-|---|
  8   9  10  11  12

|--11--8--------|
|--11--9-11--8--|
|--10--8-12--8--|
|---8--8-10--8--|
|---8--8--8--8--|
|---------------|

Fm11 "G-shape" (root note on the 6th string)

|---|b7-|---|-1-|
|---|11-|---|-5-|
|-1-|---|-9-|b3-|
|-5-|---|---|b7-|
|-9-|b3-|---|11-|
|---|b7-|---|-1-|
 10  11   12  13

|-11--------|
|-11-11-11--|
|-10-12-13--|
|-10-13-13--|
|-10-11-----|
|-13-13-13--|

Ok. So we can make many different voicings out of a given chord (many more than shown here). Choosing for ourselves just what voicing we're going to use to interpret a chord is one part of developing our own style.

Arpeggios

Probably the most common way of hearing chords with notes not all played at once would be the playing of arpeggios.We notice from above that we see more possibilities for note choices on a single string in a given position.

Here is an example of an arpeggio based on Fm11 (in E-shape, 1rst position) Compare shape with notes in TAB.

|-1-|---|-9-|b3-|  
|-5-|---|---|b7-|
|b3-|---|11-|---|
|b7-|---|-1-|---|
|11-|---|-5-|---|
|-1-|---|---|b3-|
  1   2   3   4

|-----------------1-3--|
|-------------1-4------|
|-----------4----------|
|-------1-3------------|
|-----3----------------|
|-1-4------------------|

You need not play all the notes, nor play them in order or only once. Consider the following from the same chord, shape, etc.

|-1-3-1---------------|
|-------4-1-----------|
|-----------4---------|
|-------------1-3-----|
|---------------------|
|---------------------|

Or how about we create a fingerpicking pattern such as:

|--------3------------|
|-----------4---------|
|-----4---------------|
|--1------------------|
|-----3---------------|
|--1------------------|

Fm11 "A-shape" (root note on the 5th string)

|-5-|---|---|b7-|---|
|-9-|b3-|---|11-|---|
|b7-|---|-1-|---|-9-|
|11-|---|-5-|---|---|
|-1-|---|-9-|b3-|---|
|-5-|---|---|b7-|---|
  8   9  10  11  12

|-------------------8-11----|
|--------------8-11---------|
|---------8-10-----------10-|
|------10-------------------|
|-8-11----------------------|
|---------------------------|

or 

|-----------------------8-11-9-13-|
|---------------------8-----------|
|------------------10-------------|
|---------------10----------------|
|-8-------10-11-------------------|
|---8--11-------------------------|

Ok so we can play m11 chords several ways, but what do we do with them? Are there any general rules? (yes. Can we break them? you bet.)

CHORDS in CONTEXT

We often see m11 chords written in songs, but there is a way to understand why they pop up where they do? Usually.

Recall, that we harmonized the major scale to get the chords (triads):
I-ii-iii-IV-V-vi-viio (in the key of C: C-Dm-Em-F-G-Am-Bo)
and the seventh chords:
Imaj7-ii7-iii7-IVmaj7-V7-vi7-vii7b5 (in C:
Cmaj7-Dm7-Em7-Fmaj7-G7-Am7-Bm7b5)
In ninth chords the major scale harmonized becomes:
Imaj9-ii9-iii7b9-IVmaj9-V9-vi9-vii7b9b5

In eleventh chords the major scale harmonized becomes:
Imaj11-ii11-iii11b9-IVmaj9#11-V11-vi11-vii11b9b5

We can see here that the chords in the major scale with a minor 11th chord are the 2 and the 6.

Where else does the m9 chord turn up?
Without getting into the modes of these scale systems as well, we find m9 chords in the natural minor, harmonic minor, and (also in their modes).

In the natural minor (minor scale, or aeolian mode), the m11 is the i11, and the iv11 (in the key of Am: Am11= (A,C,E,G,B,D), Dm11= (D,F,A,C,E,G)).

In the harmonic minor scale, the m11 does not naturally occur.

In the melodic minor scale, the m11 chord does not naturally occur.

In the gypsy minor scale, the m11 chord does not naturally occur.

In the pentatonic minor scale, the m11 chord does not naturally occur.

In the hungarian scale, the m11 chord does not naturally occur.

In the enigmatic scale, the m11 chord does not naturally occur.

So let's consider some progressions.

See m7 lesson for notes on progressions with m chords, substitute the m11 for m7.


http://simianmoon.com/snglstringtheory/chords/m7.html

INVERSIONS and CHORD SYNONYMS

we can invert 6 note chords, just like 3 or 4 or 5 note chords. For our purposes, we wish to know when a particular bass note is or is not in our chord, and when we can substitute m11 chords for other chords without having added or subtracted any distinct notes from our previous chord (what chords can be seen as different spellings of the m11 chord?) We will use Am11 as our example to be inverted and renamed.

Am11= A,C,E,G,B,D (root position, 1 is in the bass)

1rst inversion, 3rd is in the bass
Am11/C = C,E,G,B,D,A what C chord is this?
C,D,E,G,B,A = 1,2,3,5,7,6
we could call this C6/maj7/9 or Cmaj13(no 11).

2nd inversion, 5th is in the bass
Am11/E = E,G,B,D,A,C, what E chord is this?
E,G,B,A,C,D = 1,b3,4,5,b6,b7
We could call this Em7/11b13.

3rd inversion, 7th in the bass.
Am11/G = G,B,D,A,C,E, which F chord is this?
G,B,A,C,D,E = 1,2,3,4,5,6
We might call it : G13(no7)

4th inversion, 9th in the bass.
Am11/B = B,D,A,C,E,G , which B chord is this?
B,A,C,D,E,G, = 1,b3,b7,b9,11,b13
you have options, such as
B11b13(no3)

5th inversion, 11th in the bass.
Am11/B = D,B,A,C,E,G , which D chord is this?
D,E,G,A,B,C = 1,2,4,5,6,7
you have options, such as
Dmaj13(no3)

So for a I6/maj7/9, we could substitute vi11

for i7/11b13 we could substitute iv11.

for I13(no7) we could substitute ii11.

and for I11b13(no3) we could substitute bvii11

and for Imaj13(no3) we could substitute v11

Speaking of substitutions. Some extensions and alterations often found on the m11 chord are listed below for the intermediate/advanced student to work through and explore:

m11 = 1,b3,5,b7,9,11
m13 = 1,b3,5,b7,9,11,13
m11#5 = 1,b3,#5,b7,9,11
m11b5 = 1,b3,b5,b7,9,11
m13#5 = 1,b3,#5,b7,9,11,13
m13b5 = 1,b3,b5,b7,9,11,13
m13#11#5 = 1,b3,#5,b7,9,#11,13
m13#11b5 = 1,b3,b5,b7,9,#11,13

And the list goes on...
we could omit notes, etc. we often see these things in jazz heads. If you don't know how to play one of these chords, there's a good chance you could get away with substituting a m9 or m7 for it (of course, you'll lose part of the flavor, but in a jam...). it might be helpful to learn some m11 shapes without 5's in them (so it doesn't clash when substituted for a minor chord with an altered 5).

Here are some in F (Fm11(no5))
Fm11 = 1111X3 (E-shape, root on 6th string)
Fm11 = XX3345 (D-shape, root on 4th string)
Fm11 = X86886 (C-shape, root on 5th string)
Fm11 = X8889X (A-shape, root on 5th string)
Fm11 = 13 X 13 13 11 X (G-shape, root on 6th string)

Larger Extended Chords and Omited Notes
As we create larger and larger chords, we note that some of the new tones create dissonances with the other tones. In the min11 chord the dissonances are not as prominant as in say the maj11 chord. In the m11 chord the P11 does not clash with either the m3 or m7. However, often in larger chords a tone or two will be omited. This can happen to clarify the sound although there are other reasons. the guitar typically has 6 strings. an 11th chord has 6 tones, and a 13th chord has 7 tones. Since 6 string chords can sound overly full or awkward, especially if switched between smaller chords, it can be desirable to have smaller 4-string or 5-string chords.

So which tones to omit?
The most common tone to omit 1st is the 5th. If you're playing with a group, it is common for the bassist to emphasize the root and the 5th. Next most common tone to omit is the 4th, but this should not be omited if the chord you're playing names the tone in the chord (11th chords, 7/11, add4, sus4, etc.).
Likewise in 11th or 13th chords, the 9th can be omited.

If you're playing in a group, you might try omitting the root, if another player is playing/emphasizing the root.

So, for the min11 chord I would suggest learning voicings that contain the root,3rd,7th,11th.
1,b3,b7,11 = m7/11 (no5) = m7sus4
and also the root,7th,9th,11th.
1,b7,9,11 = I11 (no3,no5) = VIIaddb9

Next lesson on Major thirteenth chord.

Peace,
Christopher Roberts
snglstringtheory@aol.com


How do I change all those numbers to letters (for notes, chords, etc.)? Here's a transposition chart simianmoon.com/snglstringtheory/guitar/8theory3.html

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Last updated January 8, 2004
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